**UPDATED August 6, 2022* 👈 if this date is more recent then the last time you’ve visited, then that means I’ve added an entry somewhere in the mix 👀 why don’t you try to see if you can find it 👀
A GREAT PLACE TO START- the Essential List is an open ended listing of our favorite links. These are the references and resources that have been integral to our understanding of stereoscopic communication as a whole. They are all PARALLAX-SHIFT reviewed, approved & confirmed to still being active. Highly recommended for novices and experts alike!



The Stereoscopic Displays and Applications symposium is an academic white paper conference founded in 1989 by the esteemed John Merritt. Research from graduate students and universities from around the globe, private sectors and independents converge with new stereoscopic technologies, hands on demonstration sessions, keynotes by world renowned experts, and all have been carefully recorded and organized into a TOME of Stereoscopic technical information- white papers, candid reviews, photo albums and more! The site is maintained by its main chair, Dr. Prof. Andrew Woods, and spans over THIRTY YEARS. If you can think of a stereoscopic technology- it has passed through their doors. As far as we are concerned, the first three letters in 3-D must be spelled with an SD&A.


This UCAL Poffessor teaches one of the only college level classes on the history of Stereoscopy that we know of. A richly researched history of explorations in stereoscopic communications wrapped up in the dressings of an essential art history course with an updated syllabus and curriculum. If you like what you see, please send him a message or leave him a comment, he’ll appreciate his efforts being duly appreciated,


http://paulbourke.net is titled “Stereographics, 3D projection”, but the information contained within has a far stretching reach, it’s technical but digestible, and practical advice for any level of the stereo-inquisitive can be found perusing his many papers and essays.

Pop 3D blog

Excellent info on the formulae for lenticulars

Alexander Klein’s Stereoscopy Website

Alexander Klein has been a MAJOR player in Stereoscopy forever- just take a gander at his site of the same namesake. It’s chock FULL of information relating to stereo photography. This is his personal website- he also runs the site for International Stereoscopic Union and is one of the most knowledgeable and respected authorities around. It’s definitely worth a visit, just make sure you have plenty of time to spare, there’s A LOT to learn on this site and it’s very easy to get lost in


Jenny Reade is Professor of Vision Science at the Biosciences Institute at Newcastle University, and a member of Newcastle’s Centre for Behaviour and Evolution. Her particular interest is in “3D” or stereo depth perception, also known as stereopsis. As sketched out here, I study pretty much all aspects of this ability, ranging from detailed psychophysical measurements of depth perception, to computational models of the underlying neuronal mechanisms, to stereopsis in other species, to clinical disorders of vision, to commercial applications of 3D display technologies. Her papers on praying mantis stereoscopic vision also happened to insprire an entire line of PARALLAX-SHIFT swag and became our unofficial mascot. I ❤️💙 Jenny’s research.

International Journal on Stereo & Immersive Media

The International Journal on Stereo & Immersive Media is an open access and double-blind peer-reviewed journal that aims to reflect on the emergence of our progressively immersive media culture with a historical, critical and contemporary perspective. This immersive media culture depends both on state-of-the-art technologies and on historical and archaeological media that once sought to expand our sensory experiences. Stereo technologies (stereoscopic and stereophonic) are an accomplished example of this desire to add a sense of presence to visual and audio experiences, participating in and boosting contemporary technologies.

National Informal Educators Network

Even though both Sam & I are formal educators (we both teach workshops at NYC’s Penumbra Foundation) we continually brush up on our teaching skills. This website has been a great help to me as both an informal and formal educator-

John Lloyd Lovell’s flckr page’s

The late John Llyod Lovell was a true Stereographer and artist, as well versed in the language of depth as he was in composition, prose and technique in his stereoscopic works. His absence will leave a notable mark, but his fluency and mastery of the stereoscopic languages will inspire and influence generations to come.


A single paper from 2016 is chock full of alternative displays, as advertised. It’s an easy and fun read and brimming with a plethora of display methods that even the most seasoned and verdant stereo display informant is bound to stumble across something previously unknown.

Dennis Paul Curtin’s Shortcourse on Digital Stereo Photography

I end up on this site a few times a year. It’s DATED, yes, but the information in it is still very much relevant and is a PERFECT place for any beginner or intermediate stereo photographer- digital or otherwise- to start out

Leia Pix 2D – 3D conversion tool

This web based conversion tool converts normal 2D images into a variety of formats suitable for lightfield displays and other stereoscopic viewing methods. It takes only a few seconds, has adjustable settings and works like a charm, every time. PARALLAX-SHIFT tested and approved. You can keep up with the latest news from them at https://forums.leialoft.com


I do hope when my time comes, I too will be listed among the persons in our past who have made significant theoretical, technical and cultural contributions in the history of our language. This site honors and remembers our past hero’s and maintained and updated by one of the most heroic of our present. Please be sure to leave a comment or share a story about any of our hero’s who has influenced you in your journey.


An active and prolific Stereographer, David Hazan is a master of the Anaglyph format and a champion for stereoscopic media all around. His work transcends the boundaries between 2D and 3D art and inspires both seasoned and novice stereographer alike, to create works which elevate our medium.

Gallery 98’s online exhibition of Roger DeMontebello and Chrystal Chrome

A great introduction to one of the most unknown chapters in Stereoscopic history, a glimpse into Roger DeMontebello’s contributions to integral imaging.


The MIT group lab pages formerly headed by the late Steve Benton- thanks Gregg for the recommendation!

Walter Funk’s History of Autostereoscopic Cinema

I have this paper saved a total of 32 times on my desktop computer 😂😂 I suggest you give it a read 🙂 its a great illustrated history of some of the most unknown chapters in stereo’s diverse and unexpected history 👀

The illustrated 3D Movie List

The Illustrated 3D Movie List is another mandatory destination from SD&A’s main chair, Andrew Woods. This site is for 3D movie lovers everywhere and lists every stereoscopic movie with confirmed theatrical release or that has been made available for consumer purchase on various formats and distribution channels (and his corresponding Twitter account is a definite follow for information on 3-D theatrical releases as well as 3D blu rays for 3DTV viewing, grab some popcorn and some specs and dive in) 3D Movie List

Wolfram Demonstrations

Wolfram’s interactive demonstration pages teach abstract mathematic and scientific concepts through visual, interactive web based scripts with variable results dependent on user provided inputs. A keen visual aid for the understanding of stereoscopic communications, technologies, physics and human physiology. Try searching for broad terms you would like to understand more thoroughly, like “binocular” or “stereoscopic” or more specific such as “polarization” or “color theory” an excellent, interactive, visual resource which makes short work out of abstract or not easily explained concepts.

Dr Randolph Blake’s Homepage

Dr. Randolph Blake is Centennial Professor of Psychology at Vanderbilt University, and elected to the National Academy of Sciences. He studies visual perception, with particular emphasis on the roles of stereopsis and motion in specifying 3D layout of objects in the visual scene. His research investigates binocular single vision, stereopsis, rivalry and structure from motion. A must read for anyone who’s interests cross into stereoscopic theory.

Dr. Laser’s Holographer.com

Holography is very much a stereoscopic format- and Dr Laser aka Jason Sapan has been teaching it for decades at the worlds oldest and longest running holography studio. A wealth of information on the topic, plus holograms, commercial services, and a glimpse at one of the largest collections of integral holograms displayed in one place. Dr Laser was my holography teacher- he can be yours as well. Holographic Studios also happens to be the #1 place on atlas obscura to visit and a Jason is one of the truest slices of NY around.


A WONDERFUL article, authored by neurologist/writer for The New Yorker Magazine in 2006 effortlessly and elegantly describes a woman’s personal journey- from not having Stereoscopic Vision, then acquiring it and eventually losing it again. A must read for anyone who wishes to understand a visual perspective unlike (or perhaps like) their own, by the renowned author of “The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat” and other best-sellers.

The Holo Wiki Site

This page prefaces the old and new Holography message boards- with a wealth of information for any new or experienced holographer. It’s a little quiet as of late, but PLEASE feel free to register and post to your hearts content- many experienced holographers are just waiting to meet the new generation and will eagerly answer questions and discuss any topical subjects. Also contains hard to find info on Lippmann Plates- a 19th century color photography process invented by the same inventor of integral imaging.

i3DSteroid app

This is THE APP responsible for works of thousands of digital stereographers and counting. Written by the illustrious Masuji Soto and respected by users the world over.. it is to digital stereo photography what photoshop is to digital photography- but MUCH more user friendly and preforms a plethora of functions for a variety of Stereoscopic formats. An absolute MUST DOWNLOAD for any smartphone or digital stereographer EVER. I’d argue that this single app is the most important contribution to digital stereophotography, period.

Masuji Soto’s Homepage

This is Masuji Soto’s English language homepage. Check it out and utilize his whole suite of must have programs tailored specifically for stereographers of any experience levels. 🙏THANK YOU, MAESTRO🙏ありがとう、マエストロ🙏


Over A DECADE of stereo-photos by countless Stereophotographers from around the globe. This once heavily frequented site is now in limbo and updated sporadically- perhaps newfound interests can salvage this warehouse of Stereoscopic contributions- PLEASE pay a visit, weather to register your own free or paid account or just peruse through the countless works and help add to the traffic to this absolutely mandatory site.

Mark Diamonds weblog

Very few people are as well versed in Stereoscopic Communication as a whole, then Mark Diamond is. Truly a stereographers’ stereographer and a holographers’ holographer, and his work transcends the 2D/3D hurdle that most can’t.


Published in 2014, excellent explanation on how a variety of 3D Displays WORK.

Stereo PI Blog

https://stereopi.com A raspberry Pi Stereo Camera/comnfiguration blog

WFMU’s Artist & Band Browser

While this site has nothing to do with stereoscopy, it can provide you countless hours of listening opportunities to accompany your visual perusing. Go ahead and just pick a letter of the alphabet to start from, or try to locate your favorite band or musical artist, and let the absurd amount of music overflow into your visual periphery… searches take you to song titles and the radio shows they were played on, use the pop up player to locate songs within clickable playlists, archived as far back as 2000 (I wouldn’t link you to just any arbitrary music site, this is a mother-load of organized, accessible auditory accompaniments) (you’re welcome 😉 )